Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen, 1968 is the oldest available generic name that has Apistogramma ramirezi as type species. Papiliochromis Meulengracht-Madsen, 1975 is an objective junior synonym of Mikrogeophagus. Papiliochromis Kullander, 1977 is an objective junior synonym of Mikrogeophagus and an objective junior synonym and homonym of Papiliochromis Meulengracht-Madsen, 1975. The name Microgeophagus used in an aquarium book by Frey 1957 is a nomen nudum because it was not used as a valid name. Many usages of Microgeophagus are erroneous subsequent spellings of Mikrogeophagus. Pseudogeophagus used by Hoedeman 1969 and Pseudoapistogramma used by Axelrod 1971 are nomina nuda. Mikrogeophagus, Microgeophagus, Pseudogeophagus, and Pseudoapistogramma were proposed with a direct or inferred reference to a non-existent publication about the behaviour of A. ramirezi. The case of A. ramirezi suggests that ornamental fish magazines may be unreliable sources of nomenclatural information.
Sven O. Kullander
Nomenclatural availability of putative scientific generic names applied to the South American cichlid fish Apistogramma ramirezi Myers & Harry, 1948 (Teleostei: Cichlidae)
(è un abstract e il grassetto è mio)